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Since Cassidy slept with most of them, we have some interesting and fun stories. Ethan Day gives us a real potpourri of characters, each with his own personality. As Cassidy tells us about them, we see how each relates to him. I found it great fun while all seven were together and having fun just being with each other. Day wrote about with sensitivity and tenderness and Sadie actually becomes a character in the story even though she is dead when the story begins.

There is one other character who says nothing—the reader or in this case, the listener who is so into the story that he feels as if he is a part of it.

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What I would have liked was to learn more about the relationship between Cassidy and Nate. I just feel that this needed a bit more explanation. I originally read this in published form but now listening to it gives the story a whole new dimension. They remarked that portions of the old kiln are still standing.

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They were well constructed of massive sandstone, rectangular in shape, 18 feet 5. Carne and Jones were in communication with Thomas Dick of Port Macquarie who is best remembered for his evocative photographs of Hastings River Aborigines. Dick was an oyster culturist who had regular contact with members of Sydney's scientific community such as T. Roughley, an expert on coastal fish species. Carne and Jones seem to have gleaned the story of the convict origin of the limekilns from Dick. Sources local to the area have described the process of lime burning as a fire being set in the pit with wood and the hand quarried limestone blocks being dropped in from above.

The lime apparently fell to the bottom of the pit and was removed by scraping it out the front through the openings. The kilns are suggested to have been operated by men rotating from one kiln to the next for each task. Convict workers are suggested to have been housed in wooden dwellings near the limestone quarrying area. The land on which the kilns are located was a government reserve from as early as , while private individuals were given permission to get lime from the reserve from at least A Dr Fattorini is known to have built lime kilns at Piper's Creek by Kilns in the area continued to be used whenever lime for building works was needed at Port Macquarie until at least the s.

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Local sources suggest that the kilns were reworked on a subsistence basis during the Depression of the s. The site underwent conservation works to Kilns I, J and K in The most unusual feature is the extremely narrow burning chamber. The origin of the style is not known but it has been suggested that it may simply be a response to local conditions such as the scarcity of long handled iron tools needed to operate a full width kiln.

D Kilns are so described because of their shape like a letter D in plan form. They have been dug into the face of a bank with a vertical masonry wall built across the front of the pit to create a firing chamber. D kilns had become the commonest type of kiln found in NSW in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Other common forms of kilns found in Australia were the bottle kiln and the inverted bell shaped kiln. Each type was used in both commercial and private kiln production.

The oldest of the surviving early kilns in Australia is located on Norfolk Island where part of an kiln exists, while an kiln is in excellent condition. Three kilns are located at a settlement previously known as Port Essington in the Northern Territory.

These bottle shaped kilns were constructed between and Most of the surviving D Kilns were constructed late in the nineteenth century including Kingsdale near Goulburn s [26] Other lime kilns are known to be extant up on the Maria River near the Pipers Creek Kilns but are believed to be not in as good condition. They are only accessible via fire trails and then on foot. The sites are generally isolated with bushes, grasses, small trees and other undergrowth encroaching on them.

Although the kilns themselves are clearly visible due to recent work and maintenance, associated worksites and building footings are now generally overgrown and almost invisible to the casual observer.

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The lime kilns are built into the side of hills next to the limestone resource and near associated structures. They are constructed of rough rubble stone with lime-mortar as bonding.

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The kilns were originally covered with render which is now exfoliating. This kiln is located north of Bonnie Corner Road. It is accessed via an unformed track through the gently sloping landscape. The areas immediately beside the track are relatively clear of trees, giving way to moderately treed areas beyond.

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These areas between the track and the trees beyond contain a variety of now overgrown features which are believed to be associated with the lime kilns, including: [1]. These features are not easily recognisable and many could easily by mistaken for natural features. The remains of buildings are limited and overgrown and could not be assessed in the future without removal of overgrowth.

The kiln itself is located within a clearing.

On entering the clearing a large interpretive sign provides basic information about the kiln. Several mounds appear to consist of materials associated with the lime burning. Small stones are scattered throughout the site while grasses and saplings have begun to encroach, particularly at the edges of the clearing. The kiln is located beyond the sign and is a large rectangular structure built into the hill of approximately 8m long x 3. This construction style allowed a flue to be formed.

It is constructed of a rough rubble stone kiln with a lime based mortar used for bedding. There is evidence of a render which is now exfoliating. Wing walls at either end of the kiln act as retaining walls in the hillside to create a level construction and working surface in front of the firing chamber.


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  4. What appear to be large spoil and debris mounds are piled against the walls. The fire holes in the front of the kiln consist of 3 rectangular openings approximately 5. The old lintel is located on the hill behind the kiln. The burning chamber is unusually narrow approx 5. Stones located in the fire chamber are likely to be associated with the lime burning activity or to have dislodged from the structure. The kiln's construction into the hillside allow lime and fuel to be carried up the hill and dropped through the open top into the chamber.

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    Evidence of mortar inside chamber suggests that it was probably originally lined with mortar. Repointing of some surfaces within the chamber with a soft lime mortar has taken place during recent conservation works. The presence of a lot of stone on the hill to the rear of the kiln is likely to be limestone brought up the hill to be used in the kiln. Weeds have grown in the crevices and over the stones of the kiln but are subject to periodic maintenance. A consolidated lime block approximately 1 metre high is located to one side of the kiln, at a distance of approximately 20 metres from the kiln.

    Although covered with leaf litter and moss and appearing to have partially deteriorated, it is clearly a substantial item in the clearing. Like kilns I and K, Kiln J is located in a clearing accessed by an unformed track. The clearing is located within a moderately treed area It is built into a hill and is approximately 8m long x 3.

    It is constructed of a rough rubble stone with a lime based mortar used for bedding. Like the nearby kilns, the burning chamber is unusually narrow approx 5. Evidence of mortar inside the chamber suggests that it was probably originally lined with mortar. This kiln differs to kilns I and K in that it has double stone lintels over the three fire draw holes rather than a timber lintel.

    The fire holes themselves are of an arched, almost bottle like shape. The stonework appears to be more refined in its construction. Some regrowth of weeds and other plants has begun to occur but will be controlled with regular maintenance. Several mounds of lime and limestone are located in front of the kiln. This D kiln is located in a small clearing off the rough, unformed track known as Convict Road. Similar in design to kilns I and J, it is also constructed into the side of a hill and is approximately 8m long x 3. However, the throat of the fire holes is constructed of flags rather than rubble stone.

    A brush box timber lintel over the three rectangular fire holes is a more recent replacement of a previous lintel. Again there is evidence of weed growth which will be subject to periodic maintenance. A large 1 metre high mound of lime is located at the northern corner and in front of the kiln. There is no archaeological description of this kiln available and it is unclear whether it still exists. Mention of its existence is extremely limited.

    The front wall was a very thin structure of hand fitted rock. When last sighted it was in a poor state of repair and threatened by nearby trees. As at 9 March , the recent work on Kilns I, J and K had stabilised the structures using conservation and traditional trade techniques, which had returned them to a condition where the visiting public can now understand them. The remaining items have not had works undertaken on them and their hidden nature makes them difficult to access.

    The variety of the archaeological resource suggests that the potential to demonstrate the layout and workings of the site is likely to be high.